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Author Archives: Prisca Woedem

CONTRACEPTIVES- WHAT ARE THEY AND TYPES

Contraceptives, contraceptions, birth control, fertility control, post pills etc. whatever name you call it,
is a method or device used with the intent or for the purpose of preventing of pregnancy or conceiving a child.
while birth controls may be effective for most women, it may also be detrimental to others, especially to their reproductive system. Before we delve into the demerits, lets take a look at the various contraceptives available.

To begin with, there are natural methods which are known largely as traditional methods of birth control.
these do not require any form of medications or devices.

1. WITHDRAWAL/ COITUS INTERRUPTUS : this is done by the removal of the penis from the vagina such that (cum) or
ejaculation happens outside the vagina. B y so doing, the sperms are released outside the vagina hence cannot
swim to fertilize the eggs to reproduce.

2. ABSTINENCE : this means celibacy or simply consciously avoiding sexual intercourse.

Lets take a look at devices of contraception.

Devices used as contraceptions are barriers that seek to block or prevent the sperm from meeting the egg.
Examples include male condoms, female condoms. however, we would take a deeper dive into the more intensive devices of
contraception.

1. SPONGE: is a contraceptive sponge inserted into the vagina which has a depression to hold it in position over the
cervix. this is done using an applicator. the foam consists of a spermicide that kills the sperms hence acting as a barrier
to prevent them from swimming to fertilize the eggs

2. THE DIAPHRAM: is a dope shaped rubber or plastic device that’s inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix, fitting
just behind the pubic bone and functions with the aid of a spermicide.

3. CERVICAL CAP: is s thimble-like, latex rubber device that’s fixated over the cervix to prevent the sperms from entering the
uterus. The cup must be filled with spermicides to one third of the cup before insertion.

4. INJECTIONS: this is a reversible, progestin-only, long-acting, birth control medication which is given via injections (shot).
this drug is called DEPO-PROVERA OR DMPA OR SIMPLY, THE DEPO SHOT. The DMPA drug works by preventing the release of eggs to
prevent it being fertilized by the sperms. The shot must be taken in the doctor’s office every three months. It is however relevant
to note that this does not prevent or protect against sexually transmitted diseases and infectives.

5. THE INTRAUTERINE DEVICE (IUD): is a small coil or flexible T-Shaped device, placed into the uterus by a doctor. there are two
types of IUD which are

i. HORMONAL IUD: This contains progestin (a medication) that prevents sperms from swimming for fertilized the eggs through the
thickening of the cervical mucus hence making the walls of the uterus thinner. this is considered or speculated to be ninety nine
percent effective and can stay in place for three to ten years as along as pregnancy is nit considered.

ii. COPPER IUD: this releases copper which reacts as a spermicide and like the hormonal IUD can last up to ten years.

6. CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS: is a medication made up to estrogen and progestin hormones which is taken daily to prevent the release of eggs.
they also thin out the walls of the uterus just like the hormonal IUD and is considered to be ninety-one to ninety-five percent safe.

7. VAGINAL RING :is a flexible plastic ring, inserted in the vagina which releases a low dose of progestin and estrogen over three weeks.
this, like the hormonal IUD, this thickens the cervical mucus and thins out the uterus lining and may prevent ovulation. the ring may be
inserted for three weeks, removed in one week to enable and facilitate menstruations to occur, this vaginal ring is also called the NUVARINGE.

Now that you know what contraceptives and some of the various available, I hope you’d be guided on making a good choice for your sexual and reproductive health. Catch us on the next episode of tour contraceptive conversations as we dive into the merits and demerits of contraceptives.